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Join Date: Jun 2012
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The Ultimate Genesis Coupe Newbie Guide to Modding << MUST READ!
When do I "need" a tune?Turbo
You need a tune when you upgrade your turbo and/or your fuel injectors. Hyundai's stock tune is adaptive and will allow you to do most bolt-on modifications without having to retune. With that said, you will most likely not notice a significant difference in power after your bolt on modifications if you do not tune your car after having completed said modifications. The real power comes with the tune, not the hardware; however, many tunes will require that you have certain hardware modifications performed.
Will a tune "void" my warranty? (Answer only applies in the United States)
The short answer is no, a tune in of itself cannot "void" your warranty. With that said, you could be setting yourself up for a claim denial on any engine damage that may or may not be the result of the tune if the manufacturer can make a reasonable connection between the tune and the failure. Modifying your car comes with risk. If you cannot afford to foot the repair bill that comes from a failed execution of a modifications, you probably should not modify it.
What can I expect from a tune?
That will depend on the vendor you choose to go with. Every vendor has their "secret sauce" that will allow them to do stuff that other vendors cannot do. Read the various threads on tuning and get a better idea of what each vendor has to offer. Stay away from local tuners who profess to be able to tune a Genesis Coupe. The Genesis Coupe's ECU can only be properly tuned by a handful of tuners in this country and most all of them are represented on this site.
What about self-tuning options?
There are two self tuning options available to the Genesis Coupe 2.0T (sorry 3.8 guys... not so much you). Dynojets CMD and Haltechs Plug and Play ECU. If you are familiar with neither, there is not enough space here to break down what these options can do for you. There are, however, numerous threads on both the CMD and Haltech to answer just about any question that might pop into your little head. Suffice it to say that either option will allow you to blow your car up yourself with very little effort if you do not know what you (or your designated local tuner) is doing. There is no chip or magic pill that you can install that will tune your car for you.
Engine Performance (continued)
OrganicTo repeat the important point, do not buy more clutch than you need. A simple organic disk will handle a wide variety of use - including street use, auto-x, and even true racing. In fact, SCCA ITS racing rules require a standard OE-spec organic disk. UUC has tested organic disks to reliably handle up to 475hp in long-term street use. A kevlar disk is a good choice for a heavily-tracked or road-raced cars, especially with forced induction. Carbon/ceramic should be left to high-power cars that see lots of drag racing, or are dedicated track/drag cars. Sintered iron clutch disks are strictly for endurance racing.
CHARACTERISTICS: Metal-fiber woven into "organic" (actually CF aramid with other materials), original-equipment style. Known for smooth engagement, long life, broad operating temperature, minimal-to-no break in period. Will take hard use, somewhat intolerant of repeated abuse (will overheat). Will return to almost full operational condition if overheated. Material is dark brown or black with visible metal fibers.
USE: Street-driven cars up to 400hp, auto-x and track use.
CHARACTERISTICS: A high-durability material more resistant to hard use. Engagement is similar to organic, but may glaze slightly in stop-and-go traffic, resulting in slippage until worn clean when used hard again. Higher temp range in general, but can be ruined from overheating - will not return to original characteristics if "cooked". Has a break-in period of 500-1000 miles during which slippage may occur. Care must be taken during this period not to overheat from excessive slipping. Material is uniform yellow/green and may look slightly fuzzy when new.
USE: Street-driven track cars up to 500hp, auto-x and heavy track use. Will take hard use, intolerant of abuse (will overheat and not recover completely). Due to the unforgiving nature of Kevlar, it is not recommended for street cars, especially those that see frequent stop-and-go traffic which will cause surface glazing of the clutch.
CHARACTERISTICS: Same material and characteristics as solid kevlar above, but segmented (blocks or sections missing) for better heat dissipation. New generation of kevlar offered by UUC is resistant to glazing and is an excellent choice for smooth operation in high-powered cars or those equipped with SMG transmissions.
USE: Street-driven track cars up to 650hp, auto-x, and heavy track use.
CHARACTERISTICS: Organic material on one side and a segmented carbon or ceramic material on the other. The idea is that the organic side will help smooth the engagement, reducing the shuddering from the segmented side. Engagement is same as organic, but still with shuddering. Temperature and hp range is identical to organic. Carbon/ceramic side will wear flywheel or pressure plate surface faster and will wear out faster in traffic situations. Material is organic on one side (described above) and segmented or completely separate pucks (described below) on the other.
USE: Can be used in same situations as standard organic. The "hybrid" design appears to be more of a marketing gimmick rather than an actual performance advantage. Some brands are poorly designed and wear unevenly due to flexing of the clutch disk.
CHARACTERISTICS: Very high temperature materials, usually only found on multi-puck disks. Will accommodate 500hp+ Engagement is more abrupt. Will wear flywheel surface faster, especially in traffic situations. Carbon is slightly more durable and flywheel-friendly, ceramic has a higher temp range. Multi-puck design may result in slight shuddering or "stepped" engagement when used in traffic situations, although many users report completely acceptable operation. Material is any of several light hues - gray, pink, brown.
USE: Street/strip applications for drag-racing and heavy track use cars up to 500hp. Will take very hard use, suitable for extreme-clamping applications.
CHARACTERISTICS: Extremely high temperature material. Will accommodate 700hp+ Engagement is on or off. Requires special flywheel surface. Material is metallic gray.
USE: Strictly for high-horsepower endurance racing. With correct pressure plate, capable of extremely high clamping force. Engagement is like a switch, either on or off. Does not work well when cold. High-durability flywheel surface required, standard flywheels will be destroyed quickly.
Suspension and Handling
Organic pads are made of fibers mixed with fillers and binding resins to hold them together. Some components commonly found in organic pad are glass, Kevlar, and carbon. Organic pads have what enthusiasts consider a ‘mild’ character. They tend to be softer, easier on rotors, and they don’t make much noise. In the US, most OEM’s ship organic pads in new cars because they don’t require a lot of heat to generate friction, or bite. They are therefore safe for commuting in various environments. While these pads offer comfort, their Achilles Heel is a severely limited temperature range. Once they reach their maximum operating temperature, they almost immediately lose their coefficient of friction and burn up very quickly. Even if your brakes do not burn up, extreme heat can glaze the contact surface of the pad making them less effective over time.
The materials used in these pads are the least costly to acquire, as are the tools and processes to manufacture them. Therefore, organic pads are typically the least expensive pad type.
Not surprisingly, semi-metallic pads get their name from their composition. Each friction puck contains a substantial amount of metal. Common ingredients are steel wool, iron, or copper, mixed with fillers, friction modifiers, and lubricants such as graphite. On the plus side, these pads have higher operating temperatures than organic pads, draw heat out of the rotors, and do not wear as quickly. On the other hand, they are more abrasive and tend to wear rotors more quickly, make more noise, produce heavier dust, and many times have very little cold bite. Most race pads on the market today are semi-metallic.
Because the constituent materials, tools, and processes involved are more expensive than those used to produce organic pads, semi-metallic pads are more expensive.
The term ‘ceramic’ has been a hot marketing buzzword in brake pads for the past decade. These pads are created by mixing ceramic fibers, fillers, and bonding agents. The greatest benefits of ceramic pads are their lack of dust and noise. They tend to wear a little longer than organic compounds, and are also a bit more rotor-friendly. While they may have a higher temperature threshold than some of the organic compounds, they cannot compete with semi-metallic or sintered pads for heavy duty use. Enthusiasts who spend a disproportionate amount of time staring lovingly at their 6” polished rim lips may enjoy ceramic pads. Those who prefer to actually drive their car hard may be disappointed with the performance of ceramic pads.
While sintered pads have been popular on motorcycles with steel rotors, they remain an emerging technology for automotive use. Most sintered pads are formed from a copper alloy powder. The powdered metal is mixed with other lubricating and wear controlling constituents such as graphite and carbon, formed into the required shape, and then brazed to a backing plate at temperatures as high as 1800 degrees F.
Sintered pads have some unique characteristics vs. other pad types. Their nearly pure metal content provides a stable coefficient of friction from cold to hot, meaning they often need almost no warm-up time to produce bite. Since they are formed at extremely high temps, they don’t fade under extreme use. They also don’t create as much of a transfer layer on rotors, and therefore don’t require a lengthy, traditional bed-in procedure. Since the pads are semi-porous, they can be used in any weather condition: rain, snow, mud, etc.
Because they are mostly metal, the negatives traditionally associated with sintered pads have been increased rotor wear, noise, and the transmission of heat into the calipers.
The materials, tools, and processes involved with producing sintered pads are the most expensive of all current pad types.
Drilled rotorsMaterial composition and quality
Drilled brake rotors, as the name implies, have holes drilled in them. Having a holes drilled into any of your brake parts may seem counterintuitive, especially the brake rotors (after all, a rotor full of holes means that there's less surface area for the brake pads to grab and stop the car) but there are a few reasons drilled rotors make sense.
The first is heat. When the brake pad grabs the rotor, it creates friction, which creates heat. If that heat cannot escape, it leads to brake fade, which reduces the brakes' stopping power. The second reason is gas build up. This actually is not much of a problem anymore; however, the materials used in some older types of brake pads caused gas to build up between the rotors and pads. That gas also limited stopping power. The last reason is water. If a car drives through a puddle, a carwash or even a rainstorm, the brake rotors can get wet. A wet brake rotor is slippery and difficult for the brake pads to grab. Having drilled holes on a brake rotor makes it easy for heat, gas and water to be quickly moved away from the rotor surface, keeping the brake performance strong.
The downside of using drilled rotors on your vehicle is that all of those holes tend to weaken the rotors (just like punching holes in the wall of a house would weaken the wall). After repeated stressful driving, the rotors can even crack and fail.
Slotted brake rotors use slots carved into the flat metal surface to move gas, heat and water away from the surface of the rotors. You can think of the slots as irrigation ditches that move the unwanted materials safely out of the way.
Slotted brake rotors are popular with performance car drivers because the type of driving they do puts a lot of stress on the rotors. As previously mentioned, drilled rotors have been weakened, which makes them prone to cracking around the holes, particularly when they've been repeatedly driven hard. Because they tend to be a little more durable than the drilled brake rotors, slotted brake rotors may be a better brake part choice for some performance car drivers.
Of course, slotted brake rotors are not perfect, either. They tend to wear down brake pads very quickly. Because of this, the most common type of performance brake rotors found on production performance cars are of the drilled variety. While that type of construction is seen as too weak for racing applications, most everyday drivers should have no trouble with drilled rotors on their street cars and can save the slotted rotors for cars that are racetrack-bound.
Slotted and drilled rotors
If one is good then two are better, right? Ummm… not so much. What you end up doing with slotted and drilled rotors is amplify all the disadvantages of both types of rotors while not gaining any additional advantage that each type of rotor offers. From a performance standpoint, having slotted and drilled rotors serve no purpose. From a show standpoint they sure look cool. Slotted and drilled rotors fit right up there with other aesthetic decisions that we will discuss in a later segment; however, have no performance benefit beyond what was stated above for each individual type of rotor
Suspension and Handling (continued)
Summer tires: As the name may imply, summer tires are intended to be used in the warm months when there is ideal driving conditions on dry pavement. Summer tires, if used in the correct environment, tend to be the stickiest tires of all the tire categories and will give you the best overall performance and grip characteristics. Depending on their tread design, summer tires can provide superior grip along with performance even on wet pavement. Because of their relative hardness and heat shedding characteristics, summer tires usually last longer than any other tire category. The downside of this hardness is the fact that they get even harder as the temperature drops. Eventually the tire will get so cold that it will no longer conform to the road surface, reducing the contact patch, and losing grip. The higher the performance of summer tire that you get the less cold tolerant the tire gets. Keep this in mind if you live in an area that is cold more than it is hot.Directional vs. non-directional tread
Winter/snow tires: While some may believe that the tread is the main difference between winter and summer tires, they would be mistaken. As stated previously, summer tires are soft in the heat but get hard in the cold affecting the contact patch. A winter tire’s composition keeps the tire soft in the cold and allows for the tire to better conform to a cold surface thus improving grip in the cold. The difference between winter and summer tire performance in the cold is dramatic. The downside of winter tires is that they tend to get too soft when things warm up and wear very quickly. Summer tires tend to improve grip on dry surfaces as they wear because the contact surface increases. The treads on a summer tire provide a channel to evacuate water when the surface is wet. The grip characteristics of a winter tire depends heavily on the tread, as the tread provides a means for the tire to compact snow to get as much rubber in contact with the surface as possible. Worn winter tires lose effectiveness over time.
All season tires: It would seem that a tire that is designed for “all seasons” would provide the best of all worlds in terms of grip and performance. The truth of the matter is that all season tires do just “okay” in all seasons but do not come close to the performance capabilities of their summer and winter counterparts; however, may perform better in that “in between” state where summer tires lose effectiveness but it is not quite cold enough to justify installing winter tires. Additionally, not all “all season” tires are created alike… some are designed for high end performance and thus tend to lean towards better performance in summer-like conditions while others lean towards better cold performance. No all season tire can be everything to everyone. All season tires will provide adequate performance to handle most daily driving situations and could potentially be the tire of choice for the majority of drivers who do not push the tire’s performance to the edge.
Treadwear GradesSpeed Rating
UTQG Treadwear Grades are based on actual road use in which the test tire is run in a vehicle convoy along with standardized Course Monitoring Tires. The vehicle repeatedly runs a prescribed 400-mile test loop in West Texas for a total of 7,200 miles. The vehicle can have its alignment set, air pressure checked and tires rotated every 800 miles. The test tire's and the Monitoring Tire's wear are measured during and at the conclusion of the test. The tire manufacturers then assign a Treadwear Grade based on the observed wear rates. The Course Monitoring Tire is assigned a grade and the test tire receives a grade indicating its relative treadwear. A grade of 100 would indicate that the tire tread would last as long as the test tire, 200 would indicate the tread would last twice as long, 300 would indicate three times as long, etc.
The problem with UTQG Treadwear Grades is that they are open to some interpretation on the part of the tire manufacturer because they are assigned after the tire has only experienced a little treadwear as it runs the 7,200 miles. This means that the tire manufacturers need to extrapolate their raw wear data when they are assigning Treadwear Grades, and that their grades can to some extent reflect how conservative or optimistic their marketing department is. Typically, comparing the Treadwear Grades of tire lines within a single brand is somewhat helpful, while attempting to compare the grades between different brands is not as helpful.
UTQG Traction Grades are based on the tire's straight line wet coefficient of traction as the tire skids across the specified test surfaces. The UTQG traction test does not evaluate dry braking, dry cornering, wet cornering, or high speed hydroplaning resistance.
The Traction Grade is determined by installing properly inflated test tires on the instrumented axle of a "skid trailer." The skid trailer is pulled behind a truck at a constant 40 mph over wet asphalt and wet concrete test surfaces. Its brakes are momentarily locked and the axle sensors measure the tire's coefficient of friction (braking g forces) as it slides. Since this test evaluates a sliding tire at a constant 40 mph, it places more emphasis on the tire's tread compound and less emphasis on its tread design.
In 1997, the UTQG Traction Grades were revised to provide a new category of AA for the highest performing tires in addition to the earlier A, B and C grades. Previously the A grade had been the highest available and was awarded to tires that offered wet coefficients of traction above 0.47 g on asphalt and 0.35 g on concrete. Today the grades and their traction coefficients are as follows:
Temperature (Resistance) Grades
The UTQG Temperature Grade indicates the extent to which heat is generated/ or dissipated by a tire. If the tire is unable to dissipate the heat effectively or if the tire is unable to resist the destructive effects of heat buildup, its ability to run at high speeds is reduced. The grade is established by measuring a loaded tire's ability to operate at high speeds without failure by running an inflated test tire against a large diameter high-speed laboratory test wheel.
Every tire sold in the United States must be capable of earning a "C" rating which indicates the ability to withstand 85 mph speeds. While there are numerous detail differences, this laboratory test is similar in nature to those used to confirm a tire's speed ratings.
Unfortunately for all of the money spent to test, brand and label the tires sold in the United States, the Uniform Tire Quality Grade Standards have not fully met their original goal of clearly informing consumers about the capabilities of their tires. Maybe it's because tires are so complex and their uses can be so varied, that the grades don't always reflect their actual performance in real world use.
Suspension and Handling (continued)
Springs: First off.... never ever cut your OEM springs to get a lower profile. Your OEM springs are progressive springs that start out relatively loose and get tighter as they are compressed. Cutting the springs changes the handling characteristics of the springs and what you will end up with is a car that has four corners doing their own thing when you drive. With that said, there are a number of aftermarket alternatives available to you at a relatively low cost that can help you do the job right the first time and have a predictable drop and handling characteristics. This thread is not about recommending vendors or manufacturers, so do me a favor and don't ask; rather, determine what kind of drop you are looking for and then ask a vendor what springs will help you reach your goal.In all cases where your car is lowered, you are changing the aspect ratio of the stock suspension in a way that the manufacturer had not intended. The inevitable result is that you will change the handling characteristics of the car. In some cases, you will increase or amplify the shortcomings of the stock suspension and in other cases you may improve the handling (for instance lowering the CG of the car). In all cases your ride will never be as smooth as the stock ride. If you find that the car is very stiff and somewhat uncomfortable to drive on long journeys, you may want to reconsider lowering your car and just deal with all "those guys" who keep giving you crap about riding at SUV height. Ride height is like a woman's shoes. To look good, a woman will put up with a certain level of discomfort; however, the older she gets the more "comfortable" shoes seem like a better option. You can't have both.
One item to note about dropping your car by changing just the springs: Your ride is going to suck! While the springs control your ride height there is another component in your suspension that controls the quality of the ride and that is your struts. On the front axle, the struts and the coil springs are one assembly. The back axle is a multilink suspension and the strut is separate from the coil spring. Regardless if we are talking about front or back springs, the strut is designed to work at stock height; as a result, lowering your car will compress the strut all of the time. Additionally the strut travel is set to work with the stock springs and will not compress far enough when you hit a bump. If you are lowered on springs and you hit a big enough bump (read: railroad tracks)... you will hit the bump stop on the strut and your ride will be somewhat similar to the ride the Pioneers of early America felt in their Conestoga wagons blazing trails across the great plains.
Coilovers: There are two types of coilovers available on the Genesis Coupe. The budget coilovers duplicate the stock suspension. In other words, a combined assembly in the front and a component assembly in the rear. The higher end coilovers have combined assemblies for both front and back. Coilovers offer two advantages over springs: First, the strut can be lengthened and extended to match the spring height so that strut travel ceases to be an issue; Second, the dampening rate of the strut can be adjusted to give you a softer or harder ride. While adjusting the combined assembly in the front on budget coils is relatively easy (just change the length of the strut and you are done), adjusting the ride height of the multi-link component setup in the rear is a pain in the butt because you have to adjust both the spring height and the strut height separately to ensure that the preload (preset position of the strut) is maintained. So, if you plan on changing your ride height frequently, do yourself a favor and get a combined assembly for the rear axle too. You will thank me if you do.
Bags: In cases where you raise and lower your car very often, coilovers may not be a viable option for you. There are a number of airbag/airlift systems available for the Genesis Coupe that will allow you to raise or lower your car with the press of a button. While this may sound convenient, the trade off is a lighter load of cash in your wallet as most airbag systems will run over $2000 per axle. If you are seriously considering airbags as an option, you are probably reading the wrong article. One other advantage that comes from being able to easily raising and lowering your car is that you are probably going to drive it at a reasonable height that doesn't involve leaving low lying parts on the road behind you or producing sparks as you drive. One can never underestimate the value of not scraping the heads of ants at 35 mph.
Bolt on Modifications
That’s all fine and good, but I suck at math… is there a simple performance metric that can be used to match my intercooler requirement to the proper intercooler? The short answer to this question is: Yes. Most quality intercoolers have a HP rating that you can use to match to your car. For instance the Garrett intercooler core that fits the Genesis Coupe is rated for a maximum of 500HP. This is a very simplified rating system for intercoolers and does not speak directly to thermal or flow performance; rather it simply says that the intercooler will handle flow up to CFM flow rates that are required for the engine to produce 500 HP without restrictions.
- Size – While you can get an intercooler that will sit in front of your car like a giant aluminum battering ram, bigger is not always better. Keep in mind that the space inside of the intercooler will pressurize to the same pressure as the rest of the charged system… bigger means a larger volume of space that will need to be filled each time the turbo spools and will contribute to a certain amount of lag while in the time it takes to fill it. You want an intercooler that is just large enough to cool the volume of air that you will need to maintain pressure and no more. Most importantly, you need an intercooler that will fit where you want to install it. If it won’t fit, it doesn’t matter how good it is.
- Thermal Performance – This is where the rubber meets the road with regard to the effectiveness of the intercooler. High thermal performance intercoolers contain many tight passages that allows the air to come in contact with as much of the cooling surface as possible. The tradeoff to high thermal performance is a reduction in flow performance. While high thermal performance is desirable, so is getting the air into the intake manifold where it can be used.
- Flow Performance – Flow performance is measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM) which is a measure of how quickly and what volume of air passes through the intercooler. Ideally you want an intercooler that has high flow performance and a low pressure drop from intake to exit, but this parameter must be balanced with the thermal performance to ensure that hot air is not being passed through the intercooler to the intake manifold. The flow performance should match the flow potential of the turbo you have installed.
Bolt on Modifications (continued)
How much of a difference will it make if I remove my catalytic converters? The answer may surprise you. Not a whole lot in a stock system. The reason for that answer is that catalytic converters have come a long way since the 1970s. Auto manufacturers have long recognized the limitations that the catalytic converter places on the ability of the car to eliminate waste gases efficiently and the corresponding impact on HP reduction and have been working diligently to improve flow while still meeting environmental regulations in the various countries that they sell cars in. The result has been that manufacturers have been somewhat successful in matching catalytic converter flow through requirements with emissions restrictions. I say somewhat successful because catalytic converters still represent the most significant flow impedance in the exhaust system and will always be a source of some back pressure due to the flow restrictions. With that said, on the stock TDO4 turbo, removing the catalytic converters will not give you a horsepower boost that will throw you in the back seat of your car when you remove them because the flow through the catalytic converters closely match the flow capabilities of the stock turbo. What you will notice by removing your catalytic converters is a quicker spool because the restriction through the catalytic converter is higher at lower pressures than at higher pressures. Other side effects to removing your cats are an increase in the release of obnoxious odors and gases (duh) and an increase in volume on your exhaust output because the catalytic converters also act as a sort of muffler.Note: The 2.0T has two catalytic converters, the primary cat that is attached directly to the backside of the turbo itself and connects to the exhaust down pipe, and the secondary cat which is attached between the downpipe and the midpipe of the exhaust. As the names might imply the primary cat is more aggressive and more restrictive than the secondary cat. You may notice little or no difference by replacing the secondary cat. Most of your gains will be noticed when you remove the primary cat.
When should I remove my catalytic converters? The answer to that question is pretty simple: when your flow potential exceeds the maximum flow rate through the cats. In simple terms, when you get a bigger turbo. While the cats are pretty well matched to the stock turbo, they are no match for a bigger turbo. Now, at this point, some may say that the exhaust side of the turbo has nothing to do with the compressor side; however, they miss one little detail... the more air you shove into the engine, the more waste gas that comes out... so yes... bigger turbo means more waste gases to evacuate. You cannot realize the full potential of a bigger turbo unless you remove the restrictions in the exhaust path.
How big of a pipe do I need? Remembering that this series of articles is targeted specifically at the turbo community (sorry NA guys, it's not that I don't love you, but the NA science is pretty straight forward), the answer to that question is, "as big a freakin' pipe as you can get under your car and still clear speed bumps". There is misinformation out there that states that a car "needs" some back pressure to operate correctly". Don't fall prey to this theory.Turbo upgrades
The origins of the backpressure myth comes from the normally aspirated world of cars where it was important to keep the exhaust FLOW rate high using a relatively narrow pipe, and what we know from the application of Bernoulli's Principle that gases moving through a pipe at a high rate of speed actually decreases pressure of the gas inside of the pipe. The trick to applying Bernoulli's Principle to exhaust systems rests in finding an ideal pipe diameter that keeps the flow rate high to scavenge exhaust gases away from the exhaust manifold... opening a pipe too much will reduce flow rates and actually increase back pressure. Some folks have incorrectly deduced that because normally aspirated engines thrive on tight exhausts that it must be because tight exhausts are a source of back pressure when the flow rate is low and some back pressure is necessary for a properly running engine. Nothing could be further from the truth and NO engine benefits from back pressure, they benefit from improved flow which lowers pressure inside of the exhaust. Turbo cars have a turbine that spins and pulls exhaust gases out of the exhaust manifold. Because turbos push exhaust gases through the exhaust, there is no need to create narrow passages to improve flow rate. The hot gas just needs to go.
The best exhaust for your turbo car is no exhaust at all (an open dump to atmosphere at the turbine exit). The problem with that is that the hot gases being spewed from the turbo would melt everything in your engine bay, so some exhaust evacuation system is necessary to redirect the hot gases somewhere they can do no harm. The next best solution is a a big straight pipe from the turbo to the exhaust exit point (turboback). This of course presents problems because the noise from the engine is amplified inside of the pipe and is spewed into the world as an eardrum busting drone. While some may like this sound, most find the sound to be unpleasant and even unbearable. The next best thing would be a high flow cat back exhaust combined with a turboback pipe that minimizes the flow restrictions while providing sound resonators that cause some of the more unpleasant noises to cancel out leaving a deeper, more tolerable, and some may argue more attractive engine sound. Lastly, an axleback exhaust is mostly to tune the exhaust tone output and does little to improve performance.
Aftermarket or custom exhaust?
While the question of a custom exhaust does not really fit the "bolt on" category, it is appropo to mention them in contrast with the aftermarket bolt on option. This is one of those odd ball situations where a custom designed and fit system is usually less expensive than a pre-designed mass produced system. The reason for this reverse logic is pretty simple, most aftermarket systems have been "tuned" to emit a certain signature exhaust tone that would be considered to be pleasant or even exciting to the majority of people. Aftermarket exhaust manufacturers spend a great deal of R&D dollars to develop an exhaust system that most people would buy. Joe's exhaust pipes and plumbing down the street may use the same material and have years of welding experience, but is probably not familiar with the concept of exhaust note tuning. So the answer to this question is pretty simple... if you want a decent exhaust tone that will turn heads for the right reason, consider the aftermarket as your source. If you don't care, neither does Joe... save the money and have Joe whip up one if his specials for you.
Aesthetic Modifications (Looks)
Spoilers (Warning: Spoiler Alert!)
As the name might imply, spoilers are designed to spoil the air moving around the car. Contrary to some popular beliefs, spoilers are not designed to provide any downforce on the car. The purpose of a spoiler is to reduce parasitic drag and the low pressure zone behind the car caused by turbulent air.
I may have let loose on the video above a little too soon because it also explains the function of an automotive aerodynamic wings fairly completely. However, what was not really discussed was why a wing is important to aerodynamic function. While a wing will do what it was intended to do at any forward speed - increase down force - what was not really discussed was when a wing would be necessary. The downforce of the wing is designed to counteract the lifting force experienced at high speeds. A sports car is shaped a lot like a wing. It has a rounded top and a flat bottom. Just like a wing, a car will experience aerodynamic lift as it goes faster. If you are not driving fast enough to create aerodynamic lift, you probably don't need a wing.
Unlike spoilers, the name of the diffuser does not really elude to what diffusers really do. The purpose of a rear diffuser is to increase the downforce on the car. The way that it does this is by accelerating the speed of the air traveling underneath the air thereby creating a low pressure area underneath the car. Before we go on with the detailed explanation as to how a diffuser works, I would like to point out that 99% of the rear diffusers offered by aftermarket vendors are purely cosmetic in nature and contribute nothing to downforce. In fact, there is only one rear diffuser available to purchase that can remotely be considered functional.
Front lips and side skirts
A front lip serves as an air dam that aids in providing moderate downforce to the front of the car by limiting the amount of air that is allowed to move under the car. A splitter lip serves essentially the same function as a full lip but works more like a front wing. If the splitter is combined with front canard wings, the effect is multiplied exponentially.
Functional side skirts reduce the ground clearance of the sides of the car to continue what the front lip has started. In other words, side skirts make little sense if no front lip is installed and a front lip is not nearly as effective if side skirts are not installed since they both work together to keep air from flowing back under the car. The other thing that a functional front lip and the side skirts do on a Genesis Coupe is reduce the "parachute effect" of the rear bumper. If you take a look at the backside of the rear bumper, you will notice that the area is hollow. A certain amount of air that travels underneath the car will get trapped in this hollow area and create drag.
Aesthetic Modifications (Looks) (continued)
Why is the sky blue?Taste the rainbow!
To understand why certain HID colors don't seem to provide as much light output as other colors you need to understand how colors react in the atmosphere due to their wavelength. The reason why the sky is blue during the day is that blue light, more than any other color in the visible spectrum is more prone to atmospheric scattering. As a result, the sky appears blue because the air is being lit by blue light that is being refracted out of the white light that is passing through it due to blue light's extremely short wavelength.
Why does it seem like blue lights don't illuminate as bright as white light?
Answer: Because the sky is blue (didja see what I just did there?). The image that your eyes see depends greatly upon the light that must bounce off of the subject and reach your eye. Everything you see is essentially a reflection of the object you are looking at. So, if you have blue tinted headlights, much of the light output of your lights are scattering in the atmosphere before it even reaches your subject and then the reflected light is being scattered even more on the return. The result is less visible light is actually reaching your eyes.
What is worse about blue light is that all this atmospheric scattering actually makes the light appear brighter to a third person observer. This is why police cars typically use blue lights for their emergency lighting. Due to atmospheric scattering, blue lights are almost impossible to ignore because they seem to light up the entire area around the police car. To an oncoming driver, bright blue HIDs are almost blinding... even if the light is not pointed directly at you.
So... what is the best color temperature for lighting?
Answer: If you want to see, you will want lighting that is as close to daylight color temperatures as possible. Your eyes see best in daylight. Considering that we are not naturally nocturnal animals, this makes sense. Natural daylight color is in the 4300 Kelvin color range, so it follows suit that lights that emit the bulk of their emissions in the 4300K range will result in better illumination than any other color temperature. Blue occurs in the 5-8000K range. With that said, from 5000-6000K blue is not the primary color and is less noticeable than in higher color temperature ranges. If you want a little blue in your light to say, "Hey... I've got HIDs" but you do not necessarily want to blind other drivers and you would actually like to see where you are going, do not purchase lights above 6000K.
Aesthetic Modifications (Looks) (continued)
Aesthetic Modifications (Looks) (continued)
- Torque or Dash Command - Display your ECU data and view/clear check engine light (CEL) codes. (Requires an OBDII Bluetooth or Wi-Fi module)
- Automateit or Tasker - A macro task manager. Allows automatic initiation of macros that do everything from putting your tablet to sleep to opening and closing applications. Note: Some functions are only available on a rooted tablet (more on rooting later).
- A weather application - Realtime weather updates while on the road (internet connection required)
- Waze or Inrix - A social media mapping application with member generated traffic and hazard updates. (internet connection required)
- Sygic - An offline 3D navigation application. Works just like your dedicated GPS system (no internet connection required for use) Uses the same maps as TomTom.
- WiFi File Transfer - Allows remote Wi-Fi connection of your tablet to a PC on the same Wi-Fi network for file transfer and backup.
Option A: You can get 7" tablets from any of the major cellular network providers that will provide you with 24/7 internet access wherever there is data service (there is less coverage for data services than voice services). This is the most convenient option, but also tends to be the most expensive. Additionally, you may get yourself tied into a contract that you can't get out of.If you are choosing a cellular provider - Be sure to look at the data coverage areas. A cheap plan won't help you if you cannot connect to the internet where you need to. Also, pay attention to whether the data provider is on a 3G or a 4G network. Although most of what you may use a data connection for does not necessarily require a fast connection, some do. Faster is always better. If you are using Google Maps as your navigation application, you don't want to be staring at a blank screen when you don't really know where you are going because your map cannot update fast enough.
Option B: Purchase a pay as you go cellular Wi-Fi hotspot. The advantage of this approach is multifold. First, you only pay for what you use; albeit most cellular data programs are more expensive per GB than their contract counterparts. This is only an issue if you are streaming big data such as video or music. In most applications (even if you occasionally stream video) you will use less than 1 GB of data in a month. Most Wi-Fi hotspots will allow up to 5 devices to connect simultaneously, which means that your passengers that have tablets or laptops can also use the hotspot to stay connected or entertained.
Option C: If your internet provider allows you to do this, use your smart phone as a Wi-Fi hotspot through tethering. Not all cellular providers allow tethering and most charge extra for this service (some do not). Check with your cellular provider to see if tethering is an option for your plan. You may find that you can get more bandwidth for less money and not be obligated to a signing contract.
Option D: Look for free internet hotspots. This one is a little more sketchy; however, there are more and more free Wi-Fi hotspots than you may think. The disadvantage is that you will only be able to use the hotspot when you are near one. There are applications available that will allow our tablet to automatically connect to any open Wi-Fi hotspot that is in range... so even if you didn't know it was there, your tablet will find it and use it. The advantage to this approach is that your tablet will automatically update whenever it is in range of an internet hotspot and the best part... it's FREE.
- Why do you need one? Because stuff happens.
- Are dashcam videos admissible in court as evidence? Yes as long as it is time and date stamped.
- What kind of resolution do I need? At least 720P but more is better.
- What features should I be looking for in a dashcam? High resolution, battery backup, record on key on, auto looping, large SD Card capacity, parking mode, shock detection and auto record, night vision down to at least 1 lux (moonlight), smooth video (look for samples on YouTube), and finally low grain.
- How hard is it to install a dashcam? In most cases you won't need much more than a pair of needle nose pliers to install one. (You may want to buy an "add a fuse" kit to tap into your fusebox for power)
- Can I use my GoPro as a dashcam instead of going out and buying a dedicated dashcam? Yes, but the video will not have a date/time stamp and the veracity of the video can be questioned as it can be edited without obvious indicators that the video has been altered. Additionally, the GoPro needs to be powered on manually. The reason why dashcams work is because they come on automatically everytime the car is turned on. Use your GoPro for what it was intended for (as an action cam) and get a dedicated dashcam.
Turbo Basics... what's it all mean?
Turbo Basics... what's it all mean? (cont.)
Water / Methanol Injection... do I need it?
Understanding Suspension Tuning
• Non-Track or R-Spec - F: 2.52 kg/mm, R: 6.51 kg/mm (1:2.58 ratio)Note: Spring rates are measured by determining how much force is required to compress the spring one millimeter. The number itself is not necessarily and indicator of how much weight the spring will hold.
• Track or R-Spec - F: 2.75 kg/mm, R: 6.34 kg/mm (1:2.31 ratio)
• Weight distribution
• Drive layout
• Suspension & chassis setup
• Tire type, wear and pressures
• Cornering speed
• Steering inputs
• Weight transfer
• Accelerating into a corner
• Braking into a corner
• Ploughing into a corner too fast
• Low traction conditions on the corner
• Weight distribution (front or rear bias)
• Engine and drive layout
• Suspension & chassis setup
• Tire type, wear and pressures
• Cornering speed
• Steering input
• Weight transfer
• Entering the corner too fast
• Accelerating into the corner, too early or too aggressively
• Braking into the corner or mid corner
• Lifting off the throttle mid-corner. This scenario is also known as:
o lift-off oversteer
o trailing-throttle oversteer
o throttle off oversteer
o lift-throttle oversteer
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